Category Archives: Nutrition Facts

What is B2-400 (Riboflavin)?


energyVitamin B2, also known as Riboflavin, is a member of the B vitamin group. The B vitamins as a whole are considered by many as the “energy” vitamins, and though they do not DIRECTLY provide the body with energy they are a vital and necessary component of the breakdown of food and energy production. Riboflavin is absorbed into the body in its free form and then converted to its two coenzyme derivatives, Flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). A variety of chemical reactions depend on these coenzymes, and Bio-Tech’s unique, high-dose formula providing 400 mg of riboflavin is used by many to maintain ample stores within the body.

Riboflavin Deficiency

swollenThough it is commonly believed that riboflavin needs are easily met through the diets of most people, emerging evidence suggests that riboflavin deficiency, also known as ariboflavinosis, is becoming increasingly prevalent in certain population groups. Recent National Diet and Nutrition Surveys of the United Kingdom revealed that biochemical ribose deficiency is prevalent in free-living elderly people and adolescent girls (2). Diets with little or no meat, dairy, and whole grain products are unlikely to provide adequate riboflavin and may lead to deficiency. Symptoms of riboflavin deficiency include soreness of the throat, swollen mouth and throat, cheilosis (cracked or sore lips), glossitis (red, glossy tongue), and angular stomatitis (sores at the corners of the mouth), as well as seborrheic dermatitis, anemia, and neuropathy. Severe, prolonged deficiency may lead to protein and DNA damage, negative effects on the cell cycle, and reduced synthesis of certain micronutrients.

b2-400Groups at Risk of Riboflavin Inadequacy

 According to the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements

  • Vegetarian athletes
  • Pregnant and lactating women and their infants
  • People who are vegan and/or consume little milk
  • People with Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere Syndrome

Riboflavin and…..

Energy Production

The human body produces the majority of its energy from reduction-oxidation reactions; these reactions involve the transfer of electrons between molecules involved in different cycles of metabolism. The coenzyme form of riboflavin, FAD, is a key oxidizing agent in two of the three main pathways for nutrient breakdown and energy production, the Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain. These pathways take place within the mitochondria which is widely known as the “Power House” of the cell. Without adequate riboflavin, this “power house” would be unable to function properly.

Brain Health

neurotransmittersNeurotransmitters are chemical messengers within the brain that strongly effect brain health and mental well-being. Certain neurotransmitters, including dopamine, are metabolized by monoamine oxidase, an enzyme dependent on FAD, the coenzyme form of riboflavin. Adequate riboflavin levels in the body may help certain individuals maintain mental clarity and a healthy mood.

Nutrient Metabolism

As well as being a vital player in the metabolism of macronutrients (fats, proteins, and carbohydrates), riboflavin is involved in the metabolism of several micronutrients within the body:

  • Synthesis of Pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP), the active form of vitamin B6

PLP is involved with more than 100 enzyme with functions in amino acid metabolism and synthesis of neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, and GABA. PLP also affects steroid hormone activity and gene expression.

  • Synthesis of 5-methyl THF, the active form of folate

Folate is most widely known for its roles in preventing neural tube defects. Folate deficiency during pregnancy drastically increases the risk for birth defects such as spina bifida and other neural tube defects. Aside from its roles in fetal growth and development, folate has a wide range of functions within the body, including metabolism of proteins, production of energy and red blood cells, and epigenetic mechanisms which help regulate gene expression.

  • Synthesis of vitamin B3 (Niacin) from tryptophan

Niacin has been widely known for its role in lipid metabolism since the mid-to-late 1900s and is used my many to help maintain normal levels without the side effects of drugs. In addition to this, niacin is vital to around 200 dehydrogenase enzymes in the body and is heavily involved in food and micronutrient metabolism.

  • Reduction of glutathione

Glutathione is a major antioxidant with the ability to reduce harmful peroxides that pose a threat to DNA, proteins, and fatty acids throughout the body. Glutathione also functions as a carrier for amino acids.

Iron Status

Though the exact mechanisms are not clear, studies have shown what riboflavin plays a role in iron metabolism. The protein ferritin is the storage form of iron in the body, and the enzymes that release iron from this form for use are flavin-dependent and negatively impacted by riboflavin deficiency. A recent study in the UK found that riboflavin supplementation in young women significantly improved hemoglobin status, supporting that there is a positive relationship between riboflavin and iron status in humans(2).

Vitamins Instrumental to Energy Production

B2 (riboflavin)  |  B1 (Thiamin)  |  B3 (Niacin)  |  CoQ10  |  B12  |  B6


  1. Gropper, Sareen Annora Stepnick., Jack L. Smith, and James L. Groff.Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism. Australia: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning, 2009. Print.
  2. Powers H, Hill M, Mushtag S, Dainty J, Majsak-Newman G, Williams A. Correcting a marginal deficiency improves hematologic status in young women in the United Kingdom (RIBOFEM). Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;93:1274-84.
  3. “Riboflavin.”— Health Professional Fact Sheet. NIH, May 2015. Web. 11 Sept. 2015.
  4. Powers H. Riboflavin (vitamin B-2) and health. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003; 77:1352-60.

What is Vitamin D3?


Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin known primarily for its role in bone health and in calcium and phosphate balance in the body, though new evidence is constantly emerging to support a vast number of roles within the human body. what-is-vitamin-d3Vitamin D is distributed as a dietary supplement in two forms, ergocalciferol (D2) and cholecalciferol (D3). While ergocalciferol is plant derived and less bioavailable, cholecalciferol is the form of vitamin D produced in human skin when exposed to sunlight and is more bioavailable and efficient in the human body when taken as a supplement (1,2,3). While D3 has recently become more widely sold in the dietary supplement industry, Bio-Tech Pharmacal is known for its high quality supplements.   Our Vitamin D has been endorsed by prestigious organizations such as Grassroots Health and The Vitamin D council, as well as being used for numerous studies across the nation. Bio-Tech carries Vitamin D3 in strengths of 1,000 IU, 4,000 IU, and 5,000 IU for daily use, and we also have a stronger dose of 50,000 IU for less frequent use. Vitamin D3 is passively absorbed in the lower part of the small intestine, and though many believe taking the supplement with meals containing fat increases its absorption, studies have shown that is not always the case. In general, it does not matter WHEN you take Vitamin D, but rather that you take enough.

Vitamin D Deficiency

vitamin-d-council-home-test-kitAs mentioned above, sunlight stimulates the production of vitamin D within the body, and in an ideal world, this would be enough. In our ever-changing culture the individual’s exposure to sunlight is becoming increasingly insufficient, and vitamin D deficiency is becoming more and more prevalent. Other factors affecting the production of vitamin D are the time of day, location, skin color, and certain medications that interfere with its absorption and utilization in the body. The most commonly seen diseases of severe Vitamin D deficiency are osteomalacia and rickets, though a growing body of evidence suggest a myriad of additional resulting health concerns. The Vitamin D Council defines Vitamin D deficiency as having a serum level less than 30 ng/mL, and Vitamin D insufficiency as less than 40 ng/mL. It is ESSENTIAL to test your Vitamin D levels to determine the effective supplementation regimen to maintain sufficient levels of serum Vitamin D. Home Vitamin D test are available at or

Risk Factors for Vitamin D Inadequacy

According to the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements

  • vitamin-d-inadequacy-breastfed-infantsBreastfed Infants
  • Older Adults
  • Limited Sun Exposure
  • Dark Skin
  • Inflammatory bowel disease and other conditions causing fat malabsorption
  • Obesity
  • Gastric Bypass surgery

Vitamin D and…..

Heart Health

Increasing studies over the past several years have linked vitamin D to cardiovascular health and wellness (4). Vitamin D Receptors have been found in arterial wall cells, cardiomyocytes, and immune cells, and the products of vitamin D receptor activation in these cells seem to play a role in inflammation, thrombosis, and the renin-angiotensin systems, which are all vital to cardiovascular function (5).*

Bone Health

vitamin-d-neurocognitive-functionAccording to the NIH in 2010, Osteoporosis affects more than 40 million adults in the US alone. This disease which is characterized by low mass and increased fragility of bone is an effect of long-term calcium and vitamin D deficiency (6). Vitamin D is well known to promote calcium absorption and balance in the body, so is a vital factor in bone health and prevention of osteoporosis. A recent study showed a marked increase in vitamin D levels and bone mineral density in 52 men and women upon supplementation of vitamin D (7).

The Immune System

Vitamin D is of increasing interest to researchers in the realm of immunity. Vitamin D Receptors can be found on numerous cells involved in immune activity, with vitamin D being a major regulator in their growth and function (8). Research has found that sufficient vitamin D has a positive effect on the expression of many genes involved in the immune response (9).*

Blood Sugar Balance

There are many regulatory hormones within the human body, one of which is insulin. Insulin is secreted by β cells within the pancreas and works with the hormone glucagon to maintain blood sugar balance. Insulin resistance occurs when normal levels of insulin achieved a weakened response, decreasing the ability of this hormone to control blood sugar levels (10). Not only is vitamin D believed to stimulate insulin secretion, but it has also been associated with decreased insulin resistance and improved glucose balance (11Ϯ, 8; 12; 13).*


The NIH has identified breastfed infants as being at risk for insufficiency due to low concentration of vitamin D in human milk. Recent studies, however, have shown that mothers supplementing with sufficient doses of vitamin D provide a greater concentration in their breast milk, resulting in sufficiency in the infant (14Ϯ).*


  1. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2008; 93(8):3015-3020.
  2. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011; 96(4):981-988.
  3. Nephron. 2015; 130:99-104.
  4. Journal of Diabetes Research. 2013.
  5. Circulation Research. 2014.
  6. NIH, 10 Nov. 2014. Web. 20 Aug. 2015.
  7. Calcified Tissue International. 2013; 93(1):69-77.
  8. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2010; 21(6):375-384.
  9. PLOS. 2013.
  10. Clin Biochem Rev. 2005; 26:19-39.
  11. Int J Endoncrinol Metab. 2015; 13(1).Ϯ
  12. Diabetes Care. 2010; 33(6):1379-1381.
  13. Research Reviews. 2009; 22:82-92.
  14. Mayo Clinic Proc. 2013; 88(12):1378-1387.Ϯ

*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.

Ϯ The vitamin D3 supplements used in these studies were donated by Bio-Tech Pharmacal. Bio-Tech’s D3 has been chosen by researchers for use in more than 50 studies across the nation.